1. International cargo transportation is an invisible international trade
(1) The concept of international cargo transportation
In terms of its transportation objects, transportation is divided into cargo transportation and passenger transportation, and in terms of cargo transportation, it can be divided into two categories: domestic cargo transportation and international cargo transportation. International cargo transportation is the transportation between countries and countries, countries and regions. International cargo transportation can be further divided into international trade material transportation and non-trade material transportation (such as exhibits, personal luggage, office supplies, foreign aid materials, etc.). Since the transportation of non-trade materials in international cargo transportation is often only an incidental business of the trade material transportation department, international cargo transportation is usually called international trade transportation. From a country's perspective, it is foreign trade transportation, referred to as foreign trade transportation.
(2) The nature of international trade and transportation
In international trade, the price of the commodity includes the freight rate of the commodity, and the freight rate of the commodity occupies a large proportion in the price of the commodity, generally speaking, it accounts for about 10%; in some commodities, it accounts for 30%. ~40%. The freight rate of commodities, like the production price of commodities, fluctuates around the value as the market supply and demand changes. The freight rates of commodities enter the international market together with the physical form of commodities for exchange, and the changes of commodity freight rates directly affect the changes of commodity prices in international trade. The main object of international cargo transportation is international trade commodities, so it can be said that international cargo transportation is also a kind of international trade, but it is not used to exchange commodities in physical form, but a special commodity, that is, goods displacement. The so-called commodity freight, that is, its exchange price.
From this, we can draw such a conclusion: From the perspective of trade, the international transportation of goods is an invisible international trade.
Second, the characteristics of international freight transport
International cargo transportation is the transportation between countries, countries and regions. Compared with domestic cargo transportation, it has the following main characteristics:
(1) International cargo transportation involves issues of international relations and is a foreign-related activity with a strong policy significance
International cargo transportation is an integral part of international trade. In the process of organizing cargo transportation, it is necessary to have extensive direct or indirect business contacts with foreign countries. This kind of contact is not only economic, but also often involves international trade. Political issues are foreign-related activities with a strong policy nature. Therefore, international cargo transportation is not only an economic activity, but also an important foreign affairs activity, which requires us not only to handle various businesses from an economic point of view, but also to have a policy concept to engage in international transportation in accordance with the requirements of my country's foreign policy. business.
(2) International cargo transportation is long-distance transportation with many intermediate links
International cargo transportation is the transportation between countries and between countries and regions. Generally speaking, the transportation distance is relatively long, and it is often necessary to use a variety of transportation means. Through multiple loading and unloading, many intermediate links, such as transshipment, are required. , change the mode of transportation, etc., through different regions and countries, to adapt to the different laws and regulations of each country. If there is a problem in any one of the links, it will affect the entire transportation process, which requires us to organize and closely link each other, so as to avoid disconnection in a certain link and bring losses to transportation.
(3) International cargo transportation involves a wide range of areas and the situation is complex and changeable
International cargo transportation involves many departments at home and abroad, and needs to deal with cargo owners, transportation, commodity inspection agencies, insurance companies, banks or other financial institutions, customs, ports and various intermediary agents in different countries and regions. At the same time, due to the different laws and policies of various countries and regions, different trade and transportation habits and business practices, differences in financial and monetary systems, and changes in political, economic and natural conditions, all will have a greater impact on international freight transportation. .
(4) The time nature of international cargo transportation is strong
Shipping import and export goods on time and delivering them to their destination in a timely manner is of great significance to fulfilling import and export trade contracts, meeting the needs of the commodity competitive market, improving market competitiveness and timely settlement of foreign exchange. In particular, some fresh commodities, seasonal commodities and highly sensitive commodities require rapid transportation and timely organization of supply, which is conducive to improving the competitiveness of export commodities and consolidating and expanding the sales market. Therefore, international cargo transportation must strengthen the concept of time, compete for time and speed, and win by fast.
(5) The risk of international cargo transportation is relatively high
Due to the many links in international cargo transportation, the long transportation distance, the wide range involved, the complex and changeable situation, and the strong timeliness, changes in the international situation, social turmoil, various natural disasters and accidents along the transportation route Occurrence, as well as wars, blockades, embargoes or piracy, etc., may directly or indirectly affect the international transportation of goods, resulting in serious consequences. Therefore, the risk of international transportation of goods is relatively high. In order to transfer the risk loss during transportation, all kinds of import and export goods and means of transportation need to apply for transportation insurance.